BASICS CONCEPTS FOR C++ LANGUAGE

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Hei  Friends Today I will tell you about the BASIC CONCEPTS OF C++ LANGUAGE.

CONCEPTS OF C++ LANGUAGE

1.CHARACTER SET– The Character set of C++ consists of a letter, numbers, punctuation marks, special character, and blank(White Space) Character.The letters and numbers are used to form constant, variables, identifiers and Keywords. The punctuation marks and special characters have the explicit meaning in C++ and can only be used as defined in C++.

2.WHITE SPACE CHARACTER–  Any character that produces a blank space when printed is called white space character. The White Space Character are s[aces, tabs, new lines, and comments. White Space Character separate adjacent words in C++.Use them freely to make programs easier to read and understand.

3.TOKENS– When the compiler is processing the source code of a program, of characters separated by White space is called Tokens.

 C++ ALLOWS FIVE TYPESOF TOKENS

(i).IDENTIFIERS– The term identifier are used to describe the name of constants, variable and Functions. Identifiers may have for internal identifiers, at least the first31 character are significant. An identifier is a sequence of letters and digits. The first character must be a letter including the underscore(_). Upper and lower case letters are different, Identifiers or names refer to a variety of things. Apart from constants, Variables, and function. Identifiers include structures, unions, enumeration and objects.

(ii).KEYWORDS– Keywords (also known as the reserved words) has special meaning to the compiler and are always written or typed in short (lower) case. These are reserved by the language for a special purpose and cannot be redefined for use as identifiers.

(iii).Literals– Literals or constant are those tokens whose value do not change during the program execution. The various literals are integers constants, a character constant, Floating constant and string constant.

(iv).OPERATORS– Operators operate on some data to give the result e.g. plus operator(+) operators on two numbers to give the sum.

VARIOUS OPERATOR IN C++ ARE GIVEN BELOW
  • Arithmetic Operators.
  • Bitwise Operators.
  • Relational Operators.
  • Assignment Operators.
  • Logical Operators.
  • Conditional Operators.
  • Increment/decrement Operators.
  • Special Operators.

(v)PUNCTUATORS OR SPECIAL CHARACTER– Punctuators are used to separate tokens in a program. The various punctuators are (. ; : {} [] () = # *).

DATA TYPES IN C++

C++ supports the variety of data types and programmer can select the appropriate type as the need of the application.

C++ supports the following data types.

(i)FUNDAMENTAL DATA TYPES– These are the data types that are not composed of any other data types.

There are five fundamental data types in C++.

char, float, int, double and void.

(ii)DERIVED DATA TYPES– These are the data types that are composed of fundamental data types.

These are.

Array, Function, pointer, Reference, Constant, Class, Structure, Union and enumeration.

VARIABLE– string and numeric values can be stored in the memory of the computer for subsequent recall whenever the memory is used for this purpose, It’s the programmer must assign a unique name to each such area in memory.

A variable is an entity which may vary during the program’s execute. It value can be change during program execution.

RULES FOR CONSTRUCTIGN VARIABLES NAMES ARE-

(i)A variable name can be any combination of alphabets, digits or underscore.

(ii)The first characterin variable name must be an alphabet.

(iii)No commas or blanks are allowed within a variable name.

(iv)A variable name can be any combination of alphabets, digits or underscore.

(v)No special symbols other than underscore(_) can be used in the variable name.

FORMATING OUTPUT–

Most programs need to output data in various styles. C++ offers the programmer several input/output manipulators. Two or most common manipulators are setw() and setprecision().

(i)setw()–The setw()stands for set width. It is used to specify the minimum number of character position on the output field a variable will consume.  The general format is —>  setw(int w)

where,  w specifies the width e.g. cout<<setw(5)<<“x”; generates the output on the screen.

(ii)setprecision()–It is used to control the number of digits of an output stream of a floating point value. The general format is—> setprecision()

where, P specifies the precision.

The header file required for setprecision manipulators is

<iomanip.h>

 

 

 

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